# Pin Type Insulators

Pin Type

As the name suggests, the pin type insulator is secured to the cross-arm on the pole. There is a groove on the upper end of the insulator for housing the conductor. The conductor passes through this groove and is bound by the annealed wire of the same material as the conductor.

Pin type insulators are used for transmission and distribution of electric power at voltages upto 33 kV. Beyond operating voltage of 33 kV, the pin type insulators become too bulky and hence uneconomical.

## Causes of Insulator Failures

Causes of Failure Diagram

Insulators are required to withstand both mechanical and electrical stresses. The latter type is primarily due to line voltage and may cause the breakdown of the insulator. The electrical breakdown of the insulator can occur either by flash-over or puncture. In flashover, an arc occurs between the line conductor and insulator pin (i.e., earth) and the discharge jumps across the *air gaps, following shortest distance. Figure shows the arcing distance (i.e. a + b + c) for the insulator. In case of flash-over, the insulator will continue to act in its proper capacity unless extreme heat produced by the arc destroys the insulator. In case of puncture, the discharge occurs from conductor to pin through the body of the insulator. When such breakdown is involved, the insulator is permanently destroyed due to excessive heat. In practice, sufficient thickness of porcelain is provided in the insulator to avoid puncture by the line voltage. The ratio of puncture strength to flashover voltage is known as safety factor i.e.

$Safety Factor of Insulator = \frac{Puncture Strength}{Flash Over Voltage}$

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