# Tag Archives: Power Systems and Protection

# Bulk oil circuit breaker

# Air Blast Circuit Breaker

# Air Break Circuit Breaker

# Instrument Transformer – The Current Transformer

**Principle of operation**

A current transformer is defined as “as an instrument transformer in which the secondary current is substantially proportional to the primary current (under normal conditions of operation) and differs in phase from it by an angle which is approximately zero for an appropriate direction of the connections.” This highlights the accuracy requirement of the current transformer but also important is the isolating function, which means no matter what the system voltage the secondary circuit need be insulated only for a low voltage.

The current transformer works on the principle of variable flux. In the “ideal” current transformer, secondary current would be exactly equal (when multiplied by the turns ratio) and opposite to the primary current. But, as in the voltage transformer, some of the primary current or the primary ampere-turns is utilized for magnetizing the core, thus leaving less than the actual primary ampere turns to be “transformed” into the secondary ampere-turns. This naturally introduces an error in the transformation. The error is classified into two-the current or ratio error and the phase error.

**Definitions**

**Rated primary current:**The value of current which is to be transformed to a lower value. In CT parlance, the “load” of the CT refers to the primary current.**Rated secondary current:**The current in the secondary circuit and on which the performance of the CT is based. Typical values of secondary current are 1 A or 5 A. In the case of transformer differential protection, secondary currents of 1/ root 3 A and 5/ root 3 A are also specified.**Rated burden:**The apparent power of the secondary circuit in Volt-amperes expressed at the rated secondary current and at a specific power factor (0.8 for almost all standards)**Accuracy class:**In the case of metering CT s, accuracy class is typically, 0.2, 0.5, 1 or 3. This means that the errors have to be within the limits specified in the standards for that particular accuracy class. The metering CT has to be accurate from 5% to 120% of the rated primary current, at 25% and 100% of the rated burden at the specified power factor. In the case of protection CT s, the CT s should pass both the ratio and phase errors at the specified accuracy class, usually 5P or 10P, as well as composite error at the accuracy limit factor of the CT.**Composite error:**The rms value of the difference between the instantaneous primary current and the instantaneous secondary current multiplied by the turns ratio, under steady state conditions.**Accuracy limit factor:**The value of primary current upto which the CT complies with composite error requirements. This is typically 5, 10 or 15, which means that the composite error of the CT has to be within specified limits at 5, 10 or 15 times the rated primary current.**Short time rating:**The value of primary current (in kA) that the CT should be able to withstand both thermally and dynamically without damage to the windings, with the secondary circuit being short-circuited. The time specified is usually 1 or 3 seconds.**Instrument security factor (factor of security):**This typically takes a value of less than 5 or less than 10 though it could be much higher if the ratio is very low. If the factor of security of the CT is 5, it means that the composite error of the metering CT at 5 times the rated primary current is equal to or greater than 10%. This means that heavy currents on the primary are not passed on to the secondary circuit and instruments are therefore protected. In the case of double ratio CT’s, FS is applicable for the lowest ratio only.**Class PS/ X CT:**In balance systems of protection, CT s with a high degree of similarity in their characteristics are required. These requirements are met by Class PS (X) CT s. Their performance is defined in terms of a knee-point voltage (KPV), the magnetizing current (Imag) at the knee point voltage or 1/2 or 1/4 the knee-point voltage, and the resistance of the CT secondary winding corrected to 75C. Accuracy is defined in terms of the turns ratio.**Knee point voltage:**That point on the magnetizing curve where an increase of 10% in the flux density (voltage) causes an increase of 50% in the magnetizing force (current).**Summation CT:**When the currents in a number of feeders need not be individually metered but summated to a single meter or instrument, a summation current transformer can be used. The summation CT consists of two or more primary windings which are connected to the feeders to be summated, and a single secondary winding, which feeds a current proportional to the summated primary current. A typical ratio would be 5+5+5/ 5A, which means that three primary feeders of 5 are to be summated to a single 5A meter.**Core balance CT (CBCT):**The CBCT, also known as a zero sequence CT, is used for earth leakage and earth fault protection. The concept is similar to the RVT. In the CBCT, the three core cable or three single cores of a three phase system pass through the inner diameter of the CT. When the system is fault free, no current flows in the secondary of the CBCT. When there is an earth fault, the residual current (zero phase sequence current) of the system flows through the secondary of the CBCT and this operates the relay. In order to design the CBCT, the inner diameter of the CT, the relay type, the relay setting and the primary operating current need to be furnished.**Interposing CT’s (ICT’s) :**Interposing CT’s are used when the ratio of transformation is very high. It is also used to correct for phase displacement for differential protection of transformers.

# Instrument Transformer – The Potential Transformer

**Principle of operation**

The standards define a voltage transformer as one in which “the secondary voltage is substantially proportional to the primary voltage and differs in phase from it by an angle which is approximately zero for an appropriate direction of the connections.”

This, in essence, means that the voltage transformer has to be as close as possible to the “ideal” transformer. In an “ideal” transformer, the secondary voltage vector is exactly opposite and equal to the primary voltage vector, when multiplied by the turns ratio.

In a “practical” transformer, errors are introduced because some current is drawn for the magnetization of the core and because of drops in the primary and secondary windings due to leakage reactance and winding resistance. One can thus talk of a voltage error,which is the amount by which the voltage is less than the applied primary voltage ,and the phase error, which is the phase angle by which the reversed secondary voltage vector is displaced from the primary voltage vector.

# Define Recovery Voltage

**It is the normal frequency (50 Hz) r.m.s. voltage that appears across the contacts of the circuit breaker after final arc extinction. It is approximately equal to the system voltage.**

When contacts of circuit breaker are opened, current drops to zero after every half cycle. At some current zero, the contacts are separated sufficiently apart and dielectric strength of the medium between the contacts attains a high value due to the removal of ionised particles. At such an instant, the medium between the contacts is strong enough to prevent the breakdown by the restriking voltage.

Consequently, the final arc extinction takes place and circuit current is interrupted. Immediately after final current interruption, the voltage that appears across the contacts has a transient part. However, these transient oscillations subside rapidly due to the damping effect of system resistance and normal circuit voltage appears across the contacts. The voltage across the contacts is of normal frequency and is known as recovery voltage.